All posts by Ramesh Jha

Enjoy twitter in ubuntu 10.04 using gwibber

twitter with gwibber

You know beta version of the ubuntu 10.04 LTS has released earlier and final version will be released on April 29 2010 and it will be supported till 2013.Many changes and improvement has been made in Lucid Lynx(the name of the ubuntu 10.04 version).

Now you can use your favorite micro-blogging site very easily the lucid lynx came with gwibber which is installed by default in the standard ubuntu distribution package.Gwibber is microblogging client for all the popular micro blogging sites like Twitter.Hence you can easily enjoy tweeting fr0m your desktop just by clicking gwibber.Although gwibber has support for all other major microblogging sites.

Currently supported microblogging sites :


You may like : protect-against-internet-threats

what are the types of internet attacks

internet attacks

Due to the enormous increment in the methods and techniques of internet attacks it has been necessary to categorized in a particular manner.Probably no one in the world had ever imagined(in 1980s) that the after few decades internet would become an important place for criminal activities or simply a new era of cyber crime would begin with the growth of internet.

Although the types of attacks can be categorized in many ways but here I am going to discuss about these classification –

(A)Types of internet attacks(first method)

1. Confidentiality : It contains the attacks which is based on gathering sensitive information of a particular company or individual and to misuse that particular information to harm some one or to gain something in illegal manner.Snooping and sniffing comes under this category.

2. Availability : Its mean to attack so that the information becomes unavailable and you know information which is not available on the time is just useless.Denial of service or DOS is a simple attack that comes under this category.In another cases if the information is deleted by the attacker then that attack may be categorized here.

3. Integrity : This is one of the most important attacks used these days.Integrity means the information is delivered correctly as it is i.e in integrity attacks information is tempered by attacker.Spoofing like dns spoofing or arp spoofing is the simple example of this category which used in carrying integrity attacks.

(B)Types of internet attacks(Second method)

1. Active: Active attacks by name it is self explanatory that the attacker is performing attack at the same time he got the information or in active mode(spoofing or DOS) i.e he is either performing integrity or availability attacks.hence it is easier to detect and prevent.

2. Passive: these are the most dangerous attacks in which the first aim of the attacker is to just get the sensitive or vulnerable information.then he plan for attack and its execution.So the process happens in the silent manner.Hence it is very difficult to detect.

thanks to Behrouz A. Forouzan

how to login as root in ubuntu 10.04

login as root

By default you can’t login as root in ubuntu 10.04 or other linux distribution due to the security policy of linux.Suppose you have logged in as root in ubuntu and by mistake you did something wrong then your system may be crash.But administrative power is required in some cases such as in installing some programs to solve file permission problem while working on file system.That’s why there is a simple solution and is sudo command.hence you can do administrative task or run administrative commands followed by sudo.Hence in this method you will have to work in command line interface.So in the case if you don’t know much more about ubuntu commands OR you feel irritating in doing some administrative task fr0m command line then you can enable the root login fr0m the login menu  and run as a root.

Hence It is very simple to enable root logging in graphical or GUI mode, just follow these simple steps –

step1. Open the bash terminal.


step2. Type the command  sudo passwd root.First it will ask for the user password.Enter your current-user session password and and hit enter.

ubuntuuser@ubuntuuser-desktop:~$ sudo passwd root

[sudo] password for ubuntuuser:

step3. Then it will ask for new password.Enter a new password twice.This is the password you will use this in future for logging as root.

Enter new UNIX password:

Retype new UNIX password:

passwd: password updated successfully


step4. To check whether it is working or not just logout fr0m the current session.At login prompt,choose other as a user account.Next, in the place of username write root and the password you just defined in the above step.

step5. that’s all..I hope your work is done.

NOTE : If you logged in as root then you must be careful about the each activities.After finishing the administrative task you should return to the normal mode.

You may like this post : A simple tutorial to learn- how to secure from internet threats.

free accounting software for windows 7

accounting software free

Although there are many shareware and freeware accounting software’s are available for windows operating system but I am going to introduce you with a great open source software that is available free for all the common platforms and of course for windows 7 too.


It is a an excellent accounting software that is specially designed for personal and small business application.Using this you can easily analyze your income and expenses;you can make your bank account consistent.Since the interface design of the gnucash is very user friendly and it is a

flexible one.Hence it is very comfortable to manage small business finances and to keep an eye on your stock investments.Since the overall design is made on professional accounting principle hence the reports are very consistent and accuracy is also high.

Some features of the gnucash accounting software..

Double Entry
Reports, Graphs
Income/Expense Account Types
Multiple Currencies
Small Business Accounting Features
QIF Import
Statement Reconciliation
Transaction Finder

….for all the features visit :

For Linux Users

Note : Gnucash is an open source software and linux users can easily download it from the software packages available in the synaptic package manager or from software center in case of ubuntu 10.04.

credit :

What is sudo in Ubuntu?

Sudo commands in linuxIn early days it was difficult to manage the permissions for different users in a multiuser operating system that may be a client or server;suppose every user has a power of a superuser or root then any one of them may be misused the system either intentionally(If the user is smart) or ignorantly(If the user is a beginner one).Hence the simple solution of this problem is to limit the power for every users according to their need so that they can do simple tasks normally but in case of any administrative task root power is granted for small period(usually five minutes)by using the sudo commands.In sudo su stands for superuser and do means do(as usual).Hence sudo is mostly used by a permitted user for taking the permission to execute some commands as a another user or superuser, according to the information specified in sudoers file.Suppose the user that is invoking a command using the sudo power, is root then there is no need to enter user password.By default authentication is required and the user password is required; the user may use the sudo power again for short period of time(5-15min).So sudo is very useful in finishing some administrative task by a simple user.Now we are going to learn something more about the sudo commands.

Syntax of the sudo commands :

It is very simple..just use the word sudo before the actual command and hit enter.Then it will ask for the users password ..enter the password after the authorization process the commands will execute.e.g I am trying to execute commands1(installing a package using apt-get).

user840@user840-desktop:~$ sudo commands1
[sudo] password for user840:
Reading package lists… Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information… Done

….and so on the execution will complete.

Options in SUDO :

-A : Using this option the another helper program(It may be in graphical format) is called and executed to read the password of the user and output the user password to the canonical output.

-u user : this option tells the sudo to run the target command as a user instead of root(which is default case).You may use UID rather than username by using UID followed by ‘#’.i.e #uid.
-a : It is used by the sudo to use the special authentication type for the validation of the user according to the permission settings stored in /etc/login.conf.
This option is is used only in the system having the support with BSD authentication mechanism.

-b : Specifying -b(background) with the sudo command simply means to order the sudo that “run the target command in background”.

-p prompt : By using -p (prompt) one can easily customize the password prompt.So using some ‘%’ escapes(e.g %H,%h,%p) you may use any other prompt rather then the default one.

Although there are many other options available but you can easily find out in your bash shell.just type info sudo and hit enter.

Environment Variables :

here are the some environment variables used by the sudo.

USER : Set to the current user.By default its value is equal to root if -u option is not specified.

SUDO_UID : user ID of the user who used the sudo.

SUDO_USER : Set to the login of the permitted user who is using sudo.
Go to your bash terminal for the details about the more environmental variables(info sudo OR man -k sudo OR help sudo).

Credit : Todd C. Miller