Category Archives: Linux

new features of ubuntu 10.04

Mozilla firefox : ubuntu 10.04 beta came with the latest verson of mozilla firefox 3.6 ,and the default search engine is yahoo.

Desktop : ubuntu 10.04 beta lts came with the latest verson of GNOME desktop(as default) with some new features and programs.

Linux-cernel : it has come with 2.6.32-16.25 kernel.

Hal removal : the ubuntu 10.04 came with the support of full removal of hal fr0m the booting steps,hence the boot process will become more faster and it will become easy to resume in the case of suspend.

New charming themes : Two new themes ambiance and radiance has added along with some new wallpapers and icons.

New indicators : Some indicators has added to make the notification process  more consistent and well designed & optimised for session management works,communication and other tasks.

The final stable version will be released on April 29 2010.

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How To Learn Ubuntu-Linux Commands

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credit : www.ubuntu.com

Learning Bash-Shell Commands-Tutorial-3

1. mv command : It is used for file from one directories to another.You have to first enter the file_name(that you want to move) and then
the new location of that file.
SYNTAX : mv filename new_location
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ ls
passwd.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ cd ../
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop$ cd test
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ ls
login.txt  xyz.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ mv login.txt /home/rk10/Desktop/log
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ cd ../log
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ ls
login.txt  passwd.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$

2. mkdir commmand : It is used for creating new directories.You have to just specify the name of the directory after mkdir,it will create a directory in the current working directory.
SYNTAX : mkdir : mkdir new_directory
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ ls
login.txt  passwd.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ mkdir eagle
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ ls
eagle login.txt  passwd.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$

3. less command : Its works as a text reader because it can display text files contents.
SYNTAX : less file_name.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ less login.txt //press CTRL+Z to come back to command promopt.
this is the content of the file login.txt….
[1]+  Stopped                 less login.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$

4. stat command : It is very usefull in veiwing file statistics,e.g creation date,modification date etc.stat command gives the complete status of the file.
SYNTAX : stat file_name
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$ stat login.txt
File: `login.txt’
Size: 37 Blocks: 8          IO Block: 4096   regular file
Device: 808h/2056d Inode: 1024062     Links: 1
Access: (0644/-rw-r–r–)  Uid: ( 1000/rk10)   Gid: ( 1000/rk10)
Access: 2010-03-14 19:31:46.000000000 +0530
Modify: 2010-03-14 19:31:25.000000000 +0530
Change: 2010-03-14 19:31:25.000000000 +0530
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/log$

Learning bash-commands- tutorial-2

An easy way to learn linux commands-tutorial-2
1. pwd command : To see the current working directory use pwd command.
SYNTAX : pwd
rk10@rk-desktop:~$ pwd
/home/rk10
rk10@rk-desktop:~$
#For more information on cd command just type help cd ,in your bash shell.
2. cp command : It is used for copying the files from one directory to another.Here I am copying the file xyz.txt from home directory to the desktop.
SYNTAX : cp filename destination
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ ls            #test directory is empty at this time
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ cd ../
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop$ cp xyz.txt /home/rk10/Desktop/test
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop$ cd test
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ ls
xyz.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$
3. ls command : It is used to display the files and sub directories in the current working directory.
SYNTAX : ls
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/security$ ls
black_listed_IP  firestarter-events.txt  my_id
dns1.txt                netstat_1.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/security$
4. rm command : It is used to delete the file,but note that the files will be deleted permanently.
SYNTAX : rm filename
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ ls
abc.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ rm abc.txt
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$ ls
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop/test$

Easy Way to learn bash commands-tutorial-1|Linux-Ubuntu CLI

Bash comes installed with the most of the linux distribution(With MAC-OS also) such as in Ubuntu. The aim of this tutorial to explain about the need and importance about the bash commands followed by the practical use of basic commands.

These days there are so many excellent charming and cool graphical user interfaces are available So you may think that learning about the bash commands and command line interface are unnecessary, probably you like the abstraction created by graphical interfaces and you are able to do the tasks by simply clicking the mouse.

But in the case if you want to know the background explaination or the communication involved between your application softwares and operating system, learning bash commands is not a bad idea(Actually it’s a GREAT IDEA). As it allows you to pass and execute commands to kernel of your linux machine and hence it finish the task in less time as compared to GUI. In linux based distributions such as ubuntu, basics of bash commands is necessary to perform some administrative task. Hence if you are going to be an computer programmer or network security expert or you want to administrate your computer well,then you can enjoy learning bash commands.In fact it is easy and interesting…

Some basic commands in bash shell :

1. CD command :It is used for changing the working directory in the bash shell.Suppose you are working in home directory and you want to change it to Desktop then you can use the cd command as- SYNTAX : cd directory(to which you want to go)

rk10@rk-desktop:~$ cd Desktop               #here I have used relative path,you can use full path if the selected sub directory/or other destination  is not available in that directory.
rk10@rk-desktop:~/Desktop

2. MAN Command
To access the Manual.
man cd

How To Learn Ubuntu-Linux Commands

Learning bash/zsh/ssh shell commands is not so complex and boring as it seems.In fact when you will start learning bash shell commands then its initial steps may  looks ugly but when you will have some basic idea about commands then afterwards you will feel a keen interest in learning further commands.Working on command  line  interface is really have its own taste and significance even though in high graphical environment era.In linux ubuntu, if you want to do some admininstrative  task which is related to the information contained within the system files,then you can’t do that directly;the reason behind this is- all the users of the linux have some restricted access by default.

If you want to finish that administrative task then you will have to login as a root user,which is really not so simple in linux because of the linux ubuntu security policy(That’s why linux operating system is secure by default in compare to other operating system like windows where a five year child can corrupt the whole system by deleting a system file).In other ways you can finish such administrative task by using command line in few minutes,by gaining  the temperory root power using sudo command followed by the user account password.

To learn the basic/advanced linux-ubuntu bash shell commands simply follow these basic steps :

STEP1 : Learn some simple bash-commands then Open the bash/terminal from Application=>accessories=>terminal or use CTRL+ALT+F2 to open a virtual console(Return  to the graphical interface by pressing CTRL+ALT+F7).

STEP2 : For more details on any command just type help command_name(about which you want to know more),bash itself is a great place to learn more about commands and their parameters, or use the man command to access the bash manual.

STEP3 : Try to use the commands frequently that you learned.

STEP4 : That’s all ! Enjoy learning about the commands.. and for more info and tutorial on the ubuntu-bash commands visit the next posts,which contains

Start Learning Basics Linux Commands