Tag Archives: 12.04 LTS


How to Install Nginx web server on Ubuntu 12.04/12.10

Nginx is a lightweight web server (HTTP, SMTP, IMAP, POP3 ..). It has very low memory footprints with higher degree of concurrency. It’s a free and open source software, runs on all major OS (Unix, Linux, BSD, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows and more).


Setup Nginx on Ubuntu (12.04) LTS Server

Nginx is already available in Ubuntu repository, but it’s very outdated (it may be ok for development or testing but not for deployment) so for production environment you should install the newer version – either from the source or PPA.

1. Update

sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get -y upgrade

2. Dependencies

For adding ppa you need to install the python-software-properties package.

sudo apt-get -y install python-software-properties

3. Install nginx

sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:nginx/stable
sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get -y install nginx

4. Start the server!

sudo service nginx start

Now, move on to the address (IP address of your VPS or the domain name or the localhost(in case of development environment)). You should see the default page served by nginx.

5. setup server configs

For editing file over the ssh, you can use a command line editor such as Vi or Nano. I recommend nano if you want a text editor without any learning curve.

Install Nano, a lightweight text editor

sudo apt-get -y install nano

Then create a server configuration file for your app/site. (you could also just edit the global config(/etc/nginx/nginx.conf), it’s fine if you’ve only one app/site running on a virtual private server but if you plan to deploy multiple apps/websites to a single VPS – then you should create seperate configs for each website)

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com

After creating the config file (if you don’t know how – then read the official tutorials), create a symlink

sudo ln -nfs /etc/nginx/sites-available/example.com  /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/example.com

Now, restart the server!

sudo service nginx restart

Lightweight Desktop Environments for Ubuntu 12.10/12.04

If you’re not happy with the default desktop environment (Unity shell on GNOME3) in Ubuntu 12.10 (Quantal Quetzal), then you can try installing some alternative desktop such as MATE, Cinnamon, KDE etc or a lightweight desktop environment such as XFCE.

Why go for a Lightweight Desktop Environment ?

  • speed
  • efficiency
  • low resource requirements (it can also run smooth on older computers)


XFCE is a simple and easy to use Desktop environment with traditional layout/conventions (much like GNOME 2). The XFCE package contains desktop and some lightweight apps such as Thunar(File Manager), Ristretto (Image viewer), Midori (Web Browser), Orage (calandar app) etc. Based on XFCE, there is a seperate edition of Ubuntu – called Xubuntu.

Xfce Desktop

Installing XFCE Desktop in Ubuntu 12.10

sudo apt-get install xfce4


LXDE is another lighteweight desktop environment. LXDE package includes the desktop environment and apps such as PCMan(File Manager), Leafpad (Text Editor), LXTerminal (Terminal Emulator), Openbox (Window Manager) etc. LXDE flavor of Ubuntu is Lubuntu.


Installing LXDE Desktop in Ubuntu 12.10

sudo apt-get install lxde

3. Fluxbox

Fluxbox is a highly configurable lightweight desktop environment, written in C++.


Installing FLuxbox Desktop in Ubuntu 12.10/12.04

sudo apt-get install fluxbox

4. GNOME Classic

GNOME classic edition (gnome session fallback) is based on GNOME3 but it has look and behavior very similar to GNOME2. So GNOME2 fans may want to try this.


Installing GNOME classic Desktop in Ubuntu 12.10

sudo apt-get install gnome-session-fallback
sudo apt-get install indicator-applet-appmenu
upgrading to Ubuntu 12.10

How to upgrade to Ubuntu 12.10 from 12.04

Ubuntu 12.10 “Quantal Quetzal”  has released, with a lot of new exciting features. So you’re running Ubuntu 12.04 LTS now, and you’re interested in the shinny features of 12.10, then you may want to upgrade now (or you can do a fresh install (12.10), in another partition/drive)

Upgrading to Ubuntu 12.10, from 12.04 LTS is very easy, but you must always have a backup of all your important data (to another hard disk or online such as Dropbox, Ubuntu One or Amazon S3).

First of all, Back up all your important data

Then, start Update Manager. Update the settings, so that it can notify you about the new version (by default it’s set for LTS only).


Now, restart the update manager and click on check to reload the package information. Now you should see the upgrade notification “New Ubuntu release 12.10 is available” at top.

upgrading to Ubuntu 12.10


Now, read the release notes and click on upgrade to start the upgrade process.


It may take time depending on your internet connection, once the process is complete, restart your computer and enjoy the cool features in latest Ubuntu release (12.10).

NOTE : If you prefer a solid and stable distribution over the new one with latest cool stuffs, then better stick with LTS version, specially in production environment or any situation where stability/compatibility is critically important. e.g in server environment. But for most of the desktop users, that might not be an issue, or you could run LTS as primary OS (for work) and the latest one as secondary OS in other partition/drive.

Removing a PPA from software-sources

How to remove a PPA in Ubuntu 12.04/12.10

PPA(Personal Package Archive) is great  for  installing new and cool apps/utils in Ubuntu or similar GNU/Linux distro such as Linux Mint etc. Due to PPA, publishing and distributing apps has become very easy.

Sometimes you may want to remove an application installed using PPA (may be because some sort of conflict occurred between the app installed from official repository and PPA) or may be you added a wrong PPA address and you get some error messages (on terminal, e.g file not found) or update manager is not working properly due to broken PPA etc. In that case, just follow any of the method (to uninstall the ppa) –

Removing a PPA address in Ubuntu 12.04/12.10/.. Linux Mint / similar_distro

Method #1. remove the ppa file(*.list) from  /etc/apt/sources.list.d directory. Open a terminal and execute the command

ls /etc/apt/sources.list.d
ppa_1.list       ppa_2.list       ....  ppa_no_longer_required.list

sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ppa_no_longer_required.list


Method #2. If the ppa contains a newer version of standard package, then you have to use the command –

sudo ppa-purge <ppa_address>

ppa_address will be in the format of ppa:name/sub_directory (if required)

(so that it fall back to old version of the application as if there was no PPA)

Removing a PPA from software-sources

Method #3. From Software Sources – go to Ubuntu Software Center -> software sources -> other software (In Ubuntu 12.10, you can directly go to software sources) and uncheck the ppa you want to remove.

Finally, update the package cache, using the command –

sudo apt-get update
Live Preview : Retext

Markdown editor for Ubuntu 12.04/12.10

Markdown is a lightweight markup language. Using markdown, you can write content in a simple and easy to read plain text, and finally, it will generate the equivalent html(valid XHTML or html) for publishing on web. So, it’s certainly more human friendly for web writers, specifically if you are looking for a simple and efficient replacement for WYSIWYG editor.

ReText : markdown editor
Editing Markdown with ReText

Ubuntu 12.04/12.10 comes with a plain text editor called – gedit. gedit is good text editor, you can also use it as a markdown editor (it will highlight the syntax well) but the problem is that – you can not preview your document. You can’t export your markdown text to html or pdf or any format. You will have to manually export it using the command line utility and if anything goes wrong, then again – edit -> save -> export. That’s not very efficient.

So a dedicated a Markdown editor is obviously, a better choice. There are many markdown editors available for Ubuntu 12.04/12.10 such as ReText, Uberwriter etc but ReText is the best one!

ReText – Markdown Editor for Ubuntu/Linux

ReText is a text editor for markdown and reStructuredText. It’s a simple and easy to use editor but it has lot of cool features. It’s written in Python, so you can run it everywhere, not just in Ubuntu or Linux Mint (check recommended links section for official page where you can download it for other platforms).

Live Preview : Retext
Live Preview(Ctrl+L) in ReText

Few basic features of ReText :

  • Export to various formats such as HTML, PDF, ODT
  • Preview (normal and live modes)
  • spell checker
  • Shortcuts for quick editing (Ctrl+b for bold, Ctrl+i for italics and Ctrl+u for underline)

Installing ReText in Ubuntu / Linux Mint / similar_distributions

Open a terminal and execute the commands –

sudo apt-add-repository ppa:mitya57
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install retext

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